Day 3 :
Middlesex University School of Art & Design, UK
Keynote: Smart Cities and Waste Innovation
Time : 09:00-09:30
Graeme Evans is Professor of Design and Director of the Art & Design Research Institute, Middlesex University. He also holds the Chair in Culture & Urban Development at Maastricht University Department of Science Technology Society studies (STS) where he directs the Centre for Euregional & Urban Studies (CUES). He is an Investigator on the AHRC Research Network on SmArt Cities and Waste, (www.smartcitiesandwaste.org) as well as the Hydrocitizenship research project funded under the AHRC Connected Communities programme (www.hydrocitizenship.com). Prior to academe he worked in project management in the international energy and transport industries
The presentation will report on this Network which brings together waste/biomaterials scientists, industry, city government, and artists to address challenges to waste management. Waste is a significant problem facing an urbanising world, with challenges from waste prevention, treatment/management, to recycling and reuse, and the health impacts of poorly managed waste. In Europe waste production amounts to over 2.5 billion tonnes, but only a limited share (36%) is recycled, with the rest landfilled or burned. Of the 600m tonnes of products and materials that enter the UK each year, only 115m is recycled - 60% of all waste generated in London is currently exported for treatment or disposal outside of the area. This is contrary to the UK Government’s Waste Strategy, requiring waste to be managed as close as possible to the point of production. The total volume of waste generated globally is expected to increase by 50% over the next decade, however there are major variations in landfill disposal - Copenhagen(2%), Paris(11%) to New York(64%). As a recent UK government report stated: we need to make more efficient use of the increasingly valuable resources available to us…where less waste is created, delivering real financial, environmental and social benefits. We need to develop the concept of a circular economy, where one person’s waste becomes another’s valuable resource…Making the changes requires innovation and creative thinking. This also stresses the importance of community/stakeholder-led approaches which the Network is developing through citizen’s science projects such as anaerobic digesters, construction materials re-use and creative recycling schemes.
French National Center for Scientific Research (CNRS), France
Time : 09:30-10:00
Lingai LUO received her Ph.D. degree (1991) in mechanic and thermal engineering from National Polytechnic Institute of Lorraine (INPL), Nancy, France. She worked as associate professor at University of Nancy I and at INPL, France. From 2003 until 2012 she was a full professor at University of Savoie, France. She is now senior research director of French National Center for Scientific Research (CNRS) at the laboratory of thermo-kinetics, Nantes (LTN), France
Recovery of heat and / cold including low temperature is a very important strategy for improved energy efficiency in industry. Heat and cold recovery technologies are instrumental for intra-plant optimisation and inter-plant integration to enable cascade use of heat (or cold) between cross-sectoral plants in industral parks, and with district heating/cooling networks. The heat energy often needs to be transported because the supply of heat is usually located apart from the demand. However, how to efficiently transport the heat energy over long distance is a real challenge. At the same time, there is a great deal of low-grade and middle-grade heat energies, such as solar energy, geothermal energy, and waste heat from industries and power plants, kept unused due to the relatively low thermal grade and long distance to the user sites. Therefore, developing efficient methods to overcome the transportation problems of the low-grade and middle-grade heat over long distance would contribute significantly to the reduction in energy consumption. The case study presented focuses on the possibility of heat use from the Bugey nuclear power plant (35km away from Lyon) to provide district heating or cooling for the Lyon region in France. It is based on a new heat transportation concept over long distances. This transportation could save a large amount of fossil fuels consumption and reduce greenhouse gases emission that could be particularly harmful in densely populated areas
University of Oldenburg, Germany
Time : 10:00-10:30
Gerd Kaupp has completed his PhD at the age of 24 years from Würzburg University and postdoctoral studies from Iowa State, Lausanne, and Freiburg University. He held a full-professorship till 2005 in Oldenburg, Germany, and he privately continues his research on wasteless solid-state chemistry (since 1984), AFM on rough surfaces (since 1988), the non-stochastic but versatile and better resolving sub-diffraction-limit microscopy for unstained non-fluorescing materials of all types (resolution <10 nm, since 1995), and (nano)indentations (since 2000). He has published more than 300 papers in renowned journals and has been serving as an editorial board member of several scientific journals.
The top "waste management" requires entire avoidance of wastes in chemical manufacture. Thus, processes must run to completion giving pure products not requiring solvents for removal of excess reagents, unwanted side products, or catalysts by solvents for chromatography. Solid-solid and gas-solid syntheses (since 1984) are the techniques of choice, which upon proper milling can be scaled. For example, horizontal Simoloyer® ball-mills from 1 to 900 liters size are suitable and contain all technical requirements for waste-free industrial production. Lab-scale syntheses are preferably tested in double-walled ball-mills with temperature control at the 100 − 200 mg scale. Since the solids shall not melt during milling the suitable temperature below the eutectic one can be found by cooling or (if necessary) by heating (−78 to +120°C). Cooling and avoiding catalysts profits from activation energy decrease in solid-state reactions (including frozen liquids). This advantage is lost upon melting above the eutectic temperature leaving reactions incomplete and unspecific. Virtually all reaction types (also multi-cascade ones) across chemistry with reactive molecular solids, salts, ductile metals, and gases have been waste-free realized, and numerous scaled to 200 g batches, and some of industrial interest scaled to auto-batches (e.g. manufacture of Al + CNT) or continuous technical manufacture. The temperature control and the product-collection is essential and will be discussed in detail. Transfer of milling impact energy to the reacting system is only necessary for direct mechanical breakage of sigma bonds. The Simoloyer® ball-mills are also suitable for true mechanochemistry and for comminution when recycling by leaching.