Day 1 :
German Federal Ministry for Economic Cooperation and Development (BMZ), Germany
Keynote: Circular Economy and Waste Management: Trends and needs from the perspective of developing countries
Time : 09:30-10:00
Dr. Tania Rödiger-Vorwerk leads the Directorate „Environment, Energy and Infrastructure“ at the German Federal Ministry for Economic Cooperation and Development (BMZ). Dr. Tania Rödiger-Vorwerk holds a PhD in legislative science. Under the German Ex-President Prof. Dr. Horst Köhler, she was appointed to lead the „Sherpa“ for a High-Level Panel for the UN that was formed to elaborate concepts for the Post-2015 Development Agenda. Prior to that she led the BMZ Division In WENT working together with various institutions of academe and civil society and in further functions on behalf of BMZ.
Statement of the Problem: Governments, industry and the civil society worldwide increasingly recognise that the linear model of economic growth, on which they often relied in the past, or still rely, is unsustainable from an economic, environmental and social perspective and that they cannot build their future on a “take-make-dispose” model. The circular economy approach is not only relevant for established economies. The governments are facing the challenge of addressing unsustainable patterns of consumption and production. Moving towards a circular economy is essential for all governments to meet the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) amid growing scarcity of natural resources and growing urban- populations, with a rising income and increased consumption through increase in purchasing power. In the context of circular economy, there are several SDGs that are of relevance such as SDG 6 (Ensure availability and sustainable management of water and sanitation for all), SDG 8 (Promote sustained, inclusive and sustainable economic growth, full and productive employment and decent work for all), SDG 11 (Sustainable Cities and Communities), SDG 12 (sustainable consumption and production patterns), SDG 13 (Climate Action) and SDG 14 (Conserve and sustainably use the oceans, seas and marine resources for sustainable development). The German Federal Ministry of Economic Cooperation and Development (BMZ) provides official development assistance for numerous countries classified as low- and middle income countries. The presentation informs about strategies to support transformation towards circular economy in those countries and proposed priority targets and actions. These cover for example advice and financing for sustainable handling and recycling of electronic waste, prevention of marine litter, and the support of cities for implementing climate-friendly waste management technologies.
Università Mediterranea di Reggio Calabria, Italy
Keynote: Agro-reminders, municipal bio-wastes and sulfur recovered from refineries as sulfur-based organic fertilizer
Time : 10:00-10:30
Muscolo Adele has graduated in Biological Sciences (MSc) and has completed her PhD in Food Science from the Policlinic Federico II University of Naples, Italy. In 1988 she started her professional carrier as Researcher at Mediterranea University of Reggio Calabria where she is still working as Full Professor in Soil Chemistry and Ecology. Since 1990 she is Reviewer for International Scientific Journals and since 2008 she is Evaluator of projects for European Community, International Funding Research Agencies and Italian and Foreign Research Ministries. She is Examiner of International PhD dissertation. She has over 180 papers in international journals with IF. Citations: 1702; H index: 22. She has been serving as an Editorial Board Member of many international journals. She is an Associate Editor for Journal of Forestry Research.
In the ongoing work, we assessed environmentally sound technologies to produce soil improver with balanced level of nutrients, and optimal agronomic characteristics. Sulfur obtained from the residues of the desulfurization of natural gas and oil, was linked with agricultural wastes (orange pulp or olive pomace) or compost from municipal wastes to produce amendments. The experiment was a randomized complete block design with three replications. Our results showed that the pastilles of sulfur bentonite improved soil quality in respect to control (not amended soil). Pastilles of sulfur bentonite linked with agricultural and/or municipal wastes were more effective than sulfur bentonite itself. They were capable of lowering the pH of soils and positively affect the biological soil properties, increasing significantly the labile fraction of soil organic matter. The greatest increase was observed by using sulfur bentonite mixed with orange pulp or orange pulp and municipal waste. Regarding crop productivity, all the species utilized (red onion: Allium cepa, garlic: Allium sativum) grew better in amended soils. A fertilizer specie-specificity was also demonstrated for the first time. Red onion grew better (leaf and root length, leaf number and fruit size) with sulfur-bentonite pelletized with orange waste, while garlic grew better with sulfur-bentonite tied up with olive pomace. In short, this study demonstrated that recalcitrant agroremainders, municipal bio-wastes and sulfur represent a great resource for producing sustainable organic fertilizers. The effects are strictly dependent on the amount and composition of wastes used, and on the type of crop species. Therefore, this waste management system represents an opportunity for providing valuable products with reduction of environmental pollution.
Seoul National University, South Korea
Keynote: Sequential process for bacterial production of poly-3-hydroxybutyrate from methane generated from anaerobic digestion of rice straw
Time : 10:30-11:00
Kyoungphile Nam has completed his PhD from Cornell University in 1998. Currently, he is Professor at the Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Seoul National University, Korea. He also serves as the Director of Remediation Technology and Risk Assessment Center. Recently, he initiated a research project about production of bio-based plastics from agricultural wastes. He has published more than 80 papers in peer-reviewed journals.
This study aims to produce bioplastic raw material from anaerobic digestion of agricultural waste rice straw followed by bacterial polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA)-accumulating activity. PHA can be biocompatible and thus be a raw material for medical plastics depending on its composition. The sequential process for producing PHA from methane generated from anaerobic digestion of rice straw was studied. Pretreatment of rice straw, mixing intensity of reactor in anaerobic digestion step, and gas compositions in PHA accumulation step were selected for major components to optimize overall process in this study. Three pretreatment strategies including hot water extraction, acid and alkali treatment were tested to effectively liberate lignin, hemicellulose, and cellulose from rice straw. Through anaerobic digestion of pretreated samples, the highest methane amounts of 827.8, 831.9, 703.2 mL CH4 gas/g TC (total carbon) were obtained with hot water (i.e., DI water for 30 min), 1% NH3 solution, and 0.01% H2SO4 solution, respectively. Various mixing intensities (i.e., no mixing, once a week, twice a week, once a day, 50 rpm, 150 rpm, and 300 rpm) were also tested with batch and semi-continuous reactors operated for up to 50 and 300 days, respectively. In both batch and semi-continuous reactors, highest content of methane (i.e., 47.3% and 53.2%, respectively) and maximum amount of methane (i.e., 373.0±4.1 mL/g TC and 437±2.3 mL/d·g TC, respectively) in biogas (i.e., mixture of 50% methane, 45% carbon dioxide, and 5% nitrogen) produced from the anaerobic digestion of rice straw were observed with once-a-day mixing condition. A bacterial species capable of accumulating PHA from methane was isolated from activated sludge, and identified and named Methylocystis parvus MK1. Under nitrogendeficient condition, M. parvus MK1 was able to accumulate 15.7 mg of poly-3-hydroxybutyrate (P3HB) using the biogas. Different gas compositions (i.e., 100% methane, 100% biogas, 80% biogas with 20% air, 70% biogas with 30% air, 50% biogas with 50% air, and 25% biogas with 75% air) were applied for P3HB accumulation test. P3HB accumulation under 100% methane and 100% biogas conditions was remarkably slow. Highest concentration of P3HB (i.e., 17.1 mg with a molecular weight of 55,330 Da) was accumulated under 80% biogas and 20% air condition. The sequential process has been set with most favorable conditions (i.e., hot water extraction for 30 min, once a day mixing, and 80% biogas and 20% air) in order to enable the continuous and stable production of P3HB from rice straw via anaerobic digestion.
National Institute of Research and Development for Cryogenic and Isotopic Technologies, Romania
Time : 11:15-11:45
E David is a graduate of Faculty of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, MS in Physics-Chemistry of Surface and Analytical Chemistry of Babes-Bolyai University from Cluj-Napoca, Romania. She serves as a Doctor in Chemical Science, Associate Professor, Head of Department of Carbonic Materials, Composites & Analysis Techniques, at National Research Institute of Cryogenics & Isotope Technologies- Rm.Valcea, Romania. She is an author of more than 20 inventions in the field of Environment, Energy, Waste Recycling, and Materials. The World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO) awarded the WIPO prize, both at the International Exhibition of Inventions in Geneva, Switzerland (April 2012) and Brussels, Belgium (November 2014), for two inventions in the field of Waste Recycling and Clean Energy. In 2017 she was awarded with the Grand Prize of the Second Invention Salon from Barcelona for an invention in same field. She held over 80 lectures at national and international scientific conferences and congresses, has published over 140 scientific papers in prestigious national and international publications. She is a Member of the World Academy of Materials and Manufacturing Engineering (WAMME); Physical European Society; Association of Computational Materials Science and Surface Engineering, Gliwice, Poland. She acts as Reviewer for prestigious international journals too.
Recovering of products with high added value from the industrial wastes (i.e. slag, bottom/fly ash, incineration residue of municipal waste) has not only environmentally beneficial but also profitable from an economic point of view. Literature in the field is vast, but most refer to issues related to industrial waste leaching, and less of them relate to waste recycling issues. For example, if we refer to the recycling of iron from industrial waste, this is imposed by three factors: (i) increasing the amount of waste with high iron content; (ii) the need to develop new technologies for recovering metals from waste; (iii) the rising prices of metals obtained from ore. Because the composition of industrial waste is highly variable, it is difficult to derive meaningful conclusions by comparing published results from different sources. For example, waste incineration is expensive, but has distinct environmental advantages over landfilling. Through incineration, the organic content of the waste is converted into thermal energy which can be used for electric or thermal energy generation. The incineration residue consists essentially of inorganic materials and metals. Thus, the complex chemical reactions of organic compounds, e.g. acids and chelating agents, with metals are prevented. In contrast, the inorganic chemistry of mineralized incineration residues is well understood and can be fairly easily controlled. In the wastes the metals are found in elementary form or in the form of chemical compounds (mainly as oxides). In the context of metals recovery from ash, native metals and metal oxides are of commercial interest. This research refers in first part, in general terms, at recovery of non-ferrous metals from waste incinerator bottom ash and in the second part refers at aluminium recovery as alumina (Al2O3) from coal fly ash by a novel pre-desilication process. By this process, the consumption of Na2CO3 has decreased significantly due to the adjustment of Al/Si molar ratio in the raw materials. The effects of pre-desilication conditions on the dissolution of SiO2 in coal fly ash, on the consumption of Na2CO3 and the phase transformations and the alumina dissolutions at various consumption of Na2CO3 were investigated. The mixed coal fly ash with an Al/Si molar ratio of 1 could be obtained by mixing desilicated and the as-received coal fly ash. The dissolution of Al2O3 of the mixed coal fly ash reached ~87.5% at the Na/Al molar ratio of 1. The consumption of Na2CO3 decreased obviously and the reduction percentage reached 53.4% at Na/Al molar ratio of 1.0 after undergoing the predesilication process compared with the Na2CO3 direct activation process. This work could provide a novel way for the utilization of coal fly ash with high value and high efficiency. Considering that less than half of the metals out of consumer wastes can be directly recycled (by way of separate collection), it is peculiar that their recovery from the residual industrial waste to receive all the support because represents a viable way to manufacture of products with high added value